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Macaws parrots
Macaws parrots
Macaws Parrots
Rainbow Lorikeet
Watercolor on paper
8 1/4 by 11 1/2 inches


Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Wagler, 1830


In general, an area which has, relative to other areas, a great concentration of different lineages within a particular family is likely to be the original ancestral home of that family. The diversity of Psittaciformes in South America and Australasia suggests that the order has a Gondwanan origin. The parrot family's fossil record, however, is sparse and their origin remains a matter of informed speculation rather than fact.

A single 15 mm fragment from a lower bill (UCMP 143274), found in Lance Creek Formation deposits of Niobrara County, Wyoming, has been suggested as the first parrot fossil. Of Late Cretaceous date, it is about 70 million years old. But subsequent reviews have established that this fossil is almost certainly from a caenagnathid - a group of non-avian dinosaurs with a birdlike beak - and not from a bird.

It is now generally assumed that the Psittaciformes or their common ancestors with a bunch of related bird orders were present somewhere on the world around the K-Pg extinction event, some 65 mya (million years ago). If so, they probably did not have evolved their morphological autapomorphies yet, but were generalized arboreal birds, roughly similar (though not necessarily closely related) to today's potoos or frogmouths

Europe is the origin of the first generally accepted parrot fossils. They date from the Eocene, starting around 50 mya (million years ago). Several fairly complete skeletons of parrot-like birds have been found in England and Germany. Some uncertainty remains, but on the whole it seems more likely that these are not true ancestors of the modern parrots, but related lineages which evolved in the Northern Hemisphere but have since died out. These are probably not "missing links" between ancestral and modern parrots, but rather psittaciform lineages that evolved parallel to true parrots and cockatoos and had their own peculiar autapomorphies:

The earliest records of modern parrots date to about 23-20 mya and are also from Europe. Subsequently, the fossil record - mainly from Europe, again - consists of bones clearly recognizable as belonging to modern-type parrots. The Southern Hemisphere does not have nearly as rich a fossil record for the period of interest as the Northern, and contains no known parrot-like remains earlier than the early to middle Miocene, around 20 mya. At this point, however, is found the first unambiguous parrot fossil (as opposed to a parrot-like one), an upper jaw which is indistinguishable from that of modern cockatoos. Some modern genera are tentatively dated to a Miocene origin, but their unequivocal record stretches back only some 5 million years

It has long been considered unquestionable that the Psittaciformes consist of 2 major living lineages of family rank: the true parrots (Psittacidae) and the cockatoos (Cacatuidae). The Cacatuidae are quite distinct, having a movable headcrest, different arrangement of the carotid arteries, a gall bladder, differences in the skull bones, and lack the Dyck texture feathers which, in the Psittacidae, scatters light in such a way as to produce the vibrant colours of so many parrots. However, the actual situation may be more complex.

Family Psittacidae:

true parrots, over 300 species
* Subfamily Loriinae: Around a dozen genera with some 50 species of lorikeets and lories, centered in New Guinea, spreading to Australia, Indonesia, and the islands of the south Pacific.
* Subfamily Nestorinae: 1 genus with only 2 living species, the Kea and Kaka of the New Zealand region.
* Subfamily Strigopinae: The flightless, nearly extinct Kakapo of New Zealand.
* Subfamily Micropsittinae: 6 species of pygmy parrot, all in a single genus.
* Subfamily Psittacinae o Tribe Psittacini: Afrotropical parrots, about a dozen species in 3 genera. o Tribe Psittrichadini: A single species, Pesquet's Parrot. o Tribe Cyclopsittacini: fig parrots, 3 genera, all from New Guinea or nearby. o Tribe Polytelini: three genera from Australia and the Wallacea. - may belong to broad-tailed parrots o Tribe Psittaculini: Paleotropic psittaculine parrots, nearly 70 living species in 12 genera, distributed from India to Australasia.
* Subfamily Platycercinae: Broad-tailed parrots; nearly 30 species in roughly one dozen genera. o Tribe Platycercini: Rosellas and relatives; around 20 species in 8 genera. o Tribe Melopsittacini: one genus with one species, the Budgerigar o Tribe Neophemini: two small genera of parrots. o Tribe Pezoporini: one genus of parrots with two quite distinct species.
* Subfamily Arinae: Neotropical parrots, about 150 species in some 30 genera. Probably 2 distinct lineages: Miyaki et al. (1998), de Kloet & de Kloet (2005).

Many species can imitate human speech or other sounds, and the results of a study by Irene Pepperberg suggest a high learning ability in an African Grey Parrot named Alex. Alex has been trained to use words to identify objects, describe them, count them, and even answer complex questions such as "How many red squares?" with over 80% accuracy. Other scholars claim that parrots are only repeating words with no idea of their meanings and point to Pepperberg's results as being nothing but an expression of classical conditioning, or possibly a manifestation of the Clever Hans effect. A second example is that of N'kisi, another African grey, which has been shown to have a vocabulary of approximately a thousand words and has displayed an ability to invent as well as use words in context and in the correct tense.

parrots parrots
Parrots Parrots
Species of parrots

* Adelaide Rosella, Platycercus adelaidae
* African Grey Parrot, Psittacus erithacus
* Alexandrine Parakeet, Psittacula eupatria
* Amazonian Parrotlet, Nannopsittaca dachilleae
* Andean Parakeet, Bolborhynchus orbygnesius
* Antipodes Parakeet, Cyanoramphus unicolor
* Archaeopsittacus (extinct)
* Australian King Parrot, Alisterus scapularis
* Australian Ringneck, Barnardius zonarius
* Austral Parakeet, Enicognathus ferrugineus
* Barred Parakeet, Bolborhynchus lineola
* Black-billed Parrot, Amazona agilis
* Black-capped Lory, Lorius lory
* Black-capped Parakeet, Pyrrhura rupicola
* Black-cheeked Lovebird, Agapornis nigrigenis
* Black-collared Lovebird, Agapornis swinderniana
* Black-headed Parrot, Pionites melanocephala
* Black-lored Parrot, Tanygnathus gramineus
* Black Lory, Chalcopsitta atra
* Black-winged Lory, Eos cyanogenia
* Black-winged Lovebird, Agapornis taranta
* Black-winged Parrot, Hapalopsittaca melanotis
* Blaze-winged Parakeet, Pyrrhura devillei
* Blossom-headed Parakeet, Psittacula roseata
* Blue-and-yellow Macaw, Ara ararauna
* Blue-backed Parrot, Tanygnathus sumatranus
* Blue-bellied Parrot, Triclaria malachitacea
* Bluebonnet, Northiella haematogaster
* Blue-cheeked Parrot, Amazona dufresniana
* Blue-collared Parrot, Geoffroyus simplex
* Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot, Loriculus galgulus
* Blue-crowned Lorikeet, Vini australis
* Blue-crowned Parakeet, Aratinga acuticaudata
* Blue-crowned Racquet-tail, Prioniturus discurus
* Blue-eared Lory, Eos semilarvata
* Blue-fronted Lorikeet, Charmosyna toxopei
* Blue-fronted Parrot, Amazona aestiva
* Blue-fronted Parrotlet, Touit dilectissima
* Blue-headed Macaw, Propyrrhura couloni
* Blue-headed Parrot, Pionus menstruus
* Blue-headed Racquet-tail, Prioniturus platenae
* Blue Lorikeet, Vini peruviana
* Blue-naped Parrot, Tanygnathus lucionensis
* Blue-rumped Parrot, Psittinus cyanurus
* Blue-streaked Lory, Eos reticulata
* Blue-throated Macaw, Ara glaucogularis
* Blue-throated Parakeet, Pyrrhura cruentata
* Blue-winged Macaw, Propyrrhura maracana
* Blue-winged Parrot, Neophema chrysostoma
* Blue-winged Parrotlet, Forpus xanthopterygius
* Bourke's Parrot, Neopsephotus bourkii
* Brehm's Tiger Parrot, Psittacella brehmii
* Bronze-winged Parrot, Pionus chalcopterus
* Brown-backed Parrotlet, Touit melanonota
* Brown-headed Parrot, Poicephalus cryptoxanthus
* Brown-hooded Parrot, Pionopsitta haematotis
* Brown Lory, Chalcopsitta duivenbodei
* Brown-necked Parrot, Poicephalus fuscicollis
* Brown-throated Parakeet, Aratinga pertinax
* Budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus
* Buff-faced Pygmy Parrot, Micropsitta pusio
* Burrowing Parrot, Cyanoliseus patagonus
* Buru Racquet-tail, Prioniturus mada
* Caatinga Parakeet, Aratinga cactorum
* Caica Parrot, Pionopsitta caica
* Canary-winged Parakeet, Brotogeris versicolurus
* Cape Parrot, Poicephalus robustus
* Cardinal Lory, Chalcopsitta cardinalis
* Carolina Parakeet, Conuropsis carolinensis (extinct)
* Ceylon Hanging Parrot, Loriculus beryllinus
* Chatham Parakeet, Cyanoramphus forbesi
* Chattering Lory, Lorius garrulus
* Chestnut-fronted Macaw, Ara severa
* Cliff Parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus luchsi
* Cobalt-winged Parakeet, Brotogeris cyanoptera
* Cockatiel, Nymphicus hollandicus
* Collared Lory, Phigys solitarius
* Crimson-bellied Parakeet, Pyrrhura perlata
* Crimson-fronted Parakeet, Aratinga finschi
* Crimson Rosella, Platycercus elegans
* Crimson Shining Parrot, Prosopeia splendens
* Cuban Parakeet, Aratinga euops
* Cuban Parrot , Amazona leucocephala
* Derbyan Parakeet, Psittacula derbiana
* Double-eyed Fig Parrot, Cyclopsitta diophthalma
* Duchess Lorikeet, Charmosyna margarethae
* Dusky-billed Parrotlet, Forpus sclateri
* Dusky-headed Parakeet, Aratinga weddellii
* Dusky Lory, Pseudeos fuscata
* Dusky Parrot, Pionus fuscus
* Eastern Rosella, Platycercus eximius
* Eclectus Parrot, Eclectus roratus
* Edwards' Fig Parrot, Psittaculirostris edwardsii
* Elegant Parrot, Neophema elegans
* El Oro Parakeet, Pyrrhura orcesi
* Fairy Lorikeet, Charmosyna pulchella
* Festive Parrot, Amazona festiva
* Fiery-shouldered Parakeet, Pyrrhura egregia
* Fischer's Lovebird, Agapornis fischeri
* Flame-winged Parakeet, Pyrrhura calliptera
* Geelvink Pygmy Parrot, Micropsitta geelvinkiana
* Glossy Black Cockatoo, Calyptorhynchus lathami
* Golden-capped Parakeet, Aratinga auricapilla
* Golden-collared Macaw, Propyrrhura auricollis
* Golden-mantled Racquet-tail, Prioniturus platurus
* Golden Parakeet, Guarouba guarouba
* Golden-plumed Parakeet, Leptosittaca branickii
* Golden-shouldered Parrot, Psephotus chrysopterygius
* Golden-tailed Parrotlet, Touit surda
* Golden-winged Parakeet, Brotogeris chrysopterus
* Goldie's Lorikeet, Psitteuteles goldiei
* Gray-cheeked Parakeet, Brotogeris pyrrhopterus
* Great-billed Parrot, Tanygnathus megalorynchos
* Great Green Macaw, Ara ambiguus
* Greater Vasa Parrot, Coracopsis vasa
* Green-cheeked Parakeet, Pyrrhura molinae
* Green-fronted Hanging Parrot, Loriculus tener
* Green Parakeet, Aratinga holochlora
* Green Pygmy Parrot, Micropsitta finschii
* Green Racquet-tail, Prioniturus luconensis
* Green Rosella, Platycercus caledonicus
* Green-rumped Parrotlet, Forpus passerinus
* Green Wing Macaw, Ara chloroptera
* Grey-headed Lovebird, Agapornis canus
* Grey-headed Parakeet, Psittacula finschii
* Grey-hooded Parakeet, Psilopsiagon aymara
* Ground Parrot, Pezoporus wallicus
* Guaiabero, Bolbopsittacus lunulatus
* Henderson Lorikeet, Vini stepheni
* Hispaniolan Parakeet, Aratinga chloroptera
* Hispaniolan Parrot, Amazona ventralis
* Hooded Parrot, Psephotus dissimilis
* Horned Parakeet, Eunymphicus cornutus
* Hyacinth Macaw, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus
* Imperial Parrot, Amazona imperialis
* Indigo-winged Parrot, Hapalopsittaca fuertesi
* Iris Lorikeet, Psitteuteles iris
* Jandaya Parakeet, Aratinga jandaya
* Jardine's Parrot, Poicephalus gulielmi
* Josephine's Lorikeet, Charmosyna josefinae
* Kaka, Nestor meridionalis
* Kakapo, Strigops habroptilus
* Kawall's Parrot, Amazona kawalli
* Kea, Nestor notabilis
* Large Fig Parrot, Psittaculirostris desmarestii
* Layard's Parakeet, Psittacula calthropae
* Lear's Macaw, Anodorhynchus leari
* Lesser Vasa Parrot, Coracopsis nigra
* Lilac-crowned Parrot, Amazona finschi
* Lilac-tailed Parrotlet, Touit batavica
* Lilian's Lovebird, Agapornis lilianae
* Little Lorikeet, Glossopsitta pusilla
* Long-tailed Parakeet, Psittacula longicauda
* Luzon Racquet-tail, Prioniturus montanus'
* Madarasz's Tiger Parrot, Psittacella madaraszi
* Malabar Parakeet, Psittacula columboides
* Malherbe's Parakeet, Cyanoramphus malherbi
* Mallee Ringneck (now Australian Ringneck), Barnardius zonarius barnardi[1]
* Maroon-bellied Parakeet, Pyrrhura frontalis
* Maroon-fronted Parrot, Rhynchopsitta terrisi
* Maroon-tailed Parakeet, Pyrrhura melanura
* Masked Shining Parrot, Prosopeia personata
* Mauritius Parakeet, Psittacula echo
* Mealy Parrot, Amazona farinosa
* Meek's Lorikeet, Charmosyna meeki
* Mexican Parrotlet, Forpus cyanopygius
* Meyer's Parrot, Poicephalus meyeri
* Military Macaw, Ara militaris
* Mindanao Lorikeet, Trichoglossus johnstoniae
* Mindanao Racquet-tail, Prioniturus waterstradti
* Mitred Parakeet, Aratinga mitrata
* Modest Tiger Parrot, Psittacella modesta
* Moluccan Hanging Parrot, Loriculus amabilis
* Moluccan King Parrot, Alisterus amboinensis
* Monk Parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus
* Mountain Parakeet, Psilopsiagon aurifrons
* Mulga Parrot, Psephotus varius
* Musk Lorikeet, Glossopsitta concinna
* Nanday Parakeet, Nandayus nenday
* New Caledonian Lorikeet, Charmosyna diadema
* Newton's Parakeet, Psittacula exsul
* Niam-niam Parrot, Poicephalus crassus
* Nicobar Parakeet, Psittacula caniceps
* Night Parrot, Geopsittacus occidentalis
* Northern Rosella, Platycercus venustus
* Olive-headed Lorikeet, Trichoglossus euteles
* Olive-shouldered Parrot, Aprosmictus jonquillaceus
* Olive-throated Parakeet, Aratinga nana
* Orange-bellied Parrot, Neophema chrysogaster
* Orange-billed Lorikeet, Neopsittacus pullicauda
* Orange-breasted Fig Parrot, Clycopsitta gulielmitertii
* Orange-cheeked Parrot, Pionopsitta barrabandi
* Orange-chinned Parakeet, Brotogeris jugularis
* Orange-fronted Parakeet, Aratinga canicularis
* Orange-winged Parrot, Amazona amazonica
* Ornate Lorikeet, Trichoglossus ornatus
* Pacific Parakeet, Aratinga strenua
* Pacific Parrotlet, Forpus coelestis
* Painted Parakeet, Pyrrhura picta
* Painted Tiger Parrot, Psittacella picta
* Pale-headed Rosella, Platycercus adscitus
* Palm Cockatoo, Probosciger aterrimus
* Palm Lorikeet, Charmosyna palmarum
* Papuan Hanging Parrot, Loriculus aurantiifrons
* Papuan King Parrot, Alisterus chloropterus
* Papuan Lorikeet, Charmosyna papou
* Paradise Parrot, Psephotus pulcherrimus
* Peach-fronted Parakeet, Aratinga aurea
* Pearly Parakeet, Pyrrhura lepida
* Pesquet's Parrot, Psittrichas fulgidus
* Philippine Hanging Parrot, Loriculus philippensis
* Pileated Parrot, Pionopsitta pileata
* Plain Parakeet, Brotogeris tirica
* Plum-faced Lorikeet, Oreopsittacus arfaki
* Plum-headed Parakeet, Psittacula cyanocephala
* Pohnpei Lorikeet, Trichoglossus rubiginosus
* Port Lincoln Parrot (now Australian Ringneck), Barnardius zonarius[1]
* Princess Parrot, Polytelis alexandrae
* Puerto Rican Parrot, Amazona vittata
* Purple-bellied Lory, Lorius hypoinochrous
* Purple-crowned Lorikeet, Glossopsitta porphyrocephala
* Purple-naped Lory, Lorius domicella
* Pygmy Hanging Parrot, Loriculus exilis
* Pygmy Lorikeet, Charmosyna wilhelminae
* Rainbow Lorikeet, Trichoglossus haematodus
* Red-and-blue Lory, Eos histrio
* Red-and-green Macaw, Ara chloroptera
* Red-bellied Macaw, Orthopsittaca manilata
* Red-bellied Parrot, Poicephalus rufiventris
* Red-billed Parrot, Pionus sordidus
* Red-breasted Parakeet, Psittacula alexandri
* Red-breasted Pygmy Parrot, Micropsitta bruijnii
* Red-browed Parrot, Amazona rhodocorytha
* Red-capped Parrot, Purpureicephalus spurius
* Red-cheeked Parrot, Geoffroyus geoffroyi
* Red-chinned Lorikeet, Charmosyna rubrigularis
* Red-crowned Parrot, Amazona viridigenalis
* Red-eared Parakeet, Pyrrhura hoematotis
* Red-faced Parrot, Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops
* Red-fan Parrot, Deroptyus accipitrinus
* Red-flanked Lorikeet, Charmosyna placentis
* Red-fronted Lorikeet, Charmosyna rubronotata
* Red-fronted Macaw, Ara rubrogenys
* Red-fronted Parakeet, Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae
* Red-fronted Parrot, Poicephalus gulielmi
* Red-fronted Parrotlet, Touit costaricensis
* Red-headed Lovebird, Agapornis pullarius
* Red-lored Parrot, Amazona autumnalis
* Red Lory, Eos bornea
* Red-masked Parakeet, Aratinga erythrogenys
* Red-necked Parrot, Amazona arausiaca
* Red-rumped Parrot, Psephotus haematonotus
* Red Shining Parrot, Prosopeia tabuensis
* Red-shouldered Macaw, Diopsittaca nobilis
* Red-spectacled Parrot, Amazona pretrei
* Red-tailed Cockatoo, Calyptorhynchus banksii
* Red-tailed Parrot, Amazona brasiliensis
* Red-throated Lorikeet, Charmosyna amabilis
* Red-throated Parakeet, Aratinga rubritorquis
* Red-winged Parrot, Aprosmictus erythropterus
* Regent Parrot, Polytelis anthopeplus
* Rimatara Lorikeet, Vini kuhlii
* Rock Parrot, Neophema petrophila
* Rose-faced Parrot, Pionopsitta pulchra
* Rose-headed Parakeet, Pyrrhura rhodocephala
* Rose-ringed Parakeet, Psittacula krameri
* Rosy-faced Lovebird, Agapornis roseicollis
* Rueppell's Parrot, Poicephalus rueppellii
* Rufous-fronted Parakeet, Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons
* Rusty-faced Parrot, Hapalopsittaca amazonina
* Saffron-headed Parrot, Pionopsitta pyrilia
* Salvadori's Fig Parrot, Psittaculirostris salvadorii
* Sangihe Hanging Parrot, Loriculus catamene
* Santa Marta Parakeet, Pyrrhura viridicata
* Sapphire-rumped Parrotlet, Touit purpurata
* Scaly-breasted Lorikeet, Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus
* Scaly-headed Parrot, Pionus maximiliani
* Scaly-naped Parrot, Amazona mercenaria
* Scarlet-chested Parrot, Neophema splendida
* Scarlet-fronted Parakeet, Aratinga wagleri
* Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao
* Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet, Touit huetii
* Senegal Parrot, Poicephalus senegalus
* Short-tailed Parrot, Graydidascalus brachyurus
* Singing Parrot, Geoffroyus heteroclitus
* Slaty-headed Parakeet, Psittacula himalayana
* Slender-billed Parakeet, Enicognathus leptorhynchus
* Socorro Parakeet, Aratinga brevipes
* Speckle-faced Parrot, Pionus tumultuosus
* Spectacled Parrotlet, Forpus conspicillatus
* Spix's Macaw, Cyanopsitta spixii
* Spot-winged Parrotlet, Touit stictoptera
* St. Lucia Parrot, Amazona versicolor
* Striated Lorikeet, Charmosyna multistriata
* St. Vincent Parrot, Amazona guildingii
* Sula Hanging Parrot, Loriculus sclateri
* Sulawesi Hanging Parrot, Loriculus stigmatus
* Sulphur-winged Parakeet, Pyrrhura hoffmanni
* Sulu Racquet-tail, Prioniturus verticalis
* Sun Parakeet, Aratinga solstitialis
* Superb Parrot, Polytelis swainsonii
* Swift Parrot, Lathamus discolor
* Tepui Parrotlet, Nannopsittaca panychlora
* Thick-billed Parrot, Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha
* Tucuman Parrot, Amazona tucumana
* Tui Parakeet, Brotogeris sanctithomae
* Turquoise Parrot, Neophema pulchella
* Ultramarine Lorikeet, Vini ultramarina
* Varied Lorikeet, Psitteuteles versicolor
* Vernal Hanging Parrot, Loriculus vernalis
* Vinaceous Parrot, Amazona vinacea
* Violet-necked Lory, Eos squamata
* Vulturine Parrot, Pionopsitta vulturina
* Wallace's Hanging Parrot, Loriculus flosculus
* Western Rosella, Platycercus icterotis
* White-bellied Parrot, Pionites leucogaster
* White-crowned Parrot, Pionus senilis
* White-eared Parakeet, Pyrrhura leucotis
* White-eyed Parakeet, Aratinga leucophthalmus
* White-fronted Parrot, Amazona albifrons
* White-naped Lory, Lorius albidinuchus
* White-necked Parakeet, Pyrrhura albipectus
* Yellow-and-green Lorikeet, Trichoglossus flavoviridis
* Yellow-bibbed Lory, Lorius chlorocercus
* Yellow-billed Lorikeet, Neopsittacus musschenbroekii
* Yellow-billed Parrot, Amazona collaria
* Yellow-breasted Pygmy Parrot, Micropsitta meeki
* Yellow-capped Pygmy-Parrot, Micropsitta keiensis
* Yellow-chevroned Parakeet, Brotogeris chiriri
* Yellow-collared Lovebird, Agapornis personatus
* Yellow-crowned Parrot, Amazona ochrocephala
* Yellow-eared Parrot, Ognorhynchus icterotis
* Yellow-faced Parrot, Amazona xanthops
* Yellow-faced Parrotlet, Forpus xanthops
* Yellow-fronted Parakeet, Cyanoramphus auriceps
* Yellow-fronted Parrot, Poicephalus flavifrons
* Yellow-headed Parrot, Amazona oratrix
* Yellowish-breasted Racquet-tail, Prioniturus flavicans
* Yellow-lored Parrot, Amazona xantholora
* Yellow-naped Parrot, Amazona auropalliata
* Yellow Rosella, Platycercus flaveolus
* Yellow-shouldered Parrot, Amazona barbadensis
* Yellow-streaked Lory, Chalcopsitta sintillata
* Yellow-throated Hanging Parrot, Loriculus pusillus

parrots parrots
parrots parrots
parrots parrots
parrots Parakeets
Watercolor on paper
8 1/4 by 11 1/2 inches
zoologico nacion
Zoologico Ncaional de Nicaragua
Managua, Nicaragua

Parrots National Zoo of Nicaragua Copyright 1976-2013 Dr. Gloria Norris.  Click     to contact the artist for prices or information